Rule ID: unicode-mapping
Ruleset: axe-pdf 2.0
User Impact: Serious
Guidelines: PDF/UA

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Compliance Data & Impact

User Impact


Disabilities Affected

  • Blind
  • Deafblind
  • Mobility


  • PDF/UA

    How to Fix the Problem

    An easy fix is to use OpenType fonts that use Unicode character encoding in your source file. Once the PDF has been generated, your options in Adobe are limited. Adobe can help analyze where your Unicode mapping issues exist. In Adobe Acrobat Pro:

    1. Open the Preflight dialog by clicking Tools > Print Production > Preflight.
    2. Ensure Acrobat Pro DC 2015 Profiles is selected as the Library.
    3. On the Profiles tab, click the Analyze magnifying glass icon.
    4. Navigate to Font and click expand.
    5. Select “Text cannot be mapped to Unicode” and click “Analyze”.

    Why it Matters

    Incorrect or missing unicode mapping can cause issues in how characters are rendered in a document.

    Rule Description

    Unicode characters must be properly mapped in order to be interpreted correctly by screen readers.

    The Algorithm (in simple terms)

    Ensure all fonts and characters have been correctly mapped in your document.


    Refer to the complete list of axe 2.0 rules.

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