<blink> elements are deprecated and must not be used

Rule ID: blink
Ruleset: axe-core 4.7
User Impact: Serious
Guidelines: WCAG 2.1 (A), WCAG 2.0 (A), Section 508, Trusted Tester

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Compliance Data & Impact

User Impact


Disabilities Affected

  • Low Vision
  • Mobility
  • Cognitive


  • WCAG 2.1 (A)
  • WCAG 2.0 (A)
  • Section 508
  • Trusted Tester

WCAG Success Criteria [WCAG 2.1 (A)]

  • 2.2.2: MUST: Pause, Stop, Hide

WCAG Success Criteria [WCAG 2.0 (A)]

  • 2.2.2: MUST: Pause, Stop, Hide

Section 508 Guidelines

  • 1194.22: MUST: Web based intranet and Internet Information & Applications
  • 1194.22 (j): MUST: Pages shall be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz.

Trusted Tester Guidelines

  • 2.B: MUST: The user can pause, stop, or hide moving, blinking, or scrolling content.

How to Fix the Problem

Remove all blink elements.

An example of a code snippet you should remove from an HTML file:

<p><blink>Moving Sale Thursday!</blink></p>

An example of a code snippet you should remove from a CSS file:

h1 {
  text-decoration: blink;


A number of modern browsers do not support blinking text. It is entirely possible that you will have the blink element in an HTML file, but this won’t produce blinking text on the web page. For this reason, don’t rely on the visual rendering of an HTML document to determine whether there are blink tags in it; be sure to check the actual file contents.

To fix both of the above code examples, remove the blink element and/or text-decoration: blink; from your CSS. Replace this markup to make the text stand out in some other way.

Why it Matters

As the name suggests, blink tags cause content to flash. Though you may like the effect, blinking text can be difficult to read, and blinking objects (links, buttons, etc.) can be difficult to activate, especially for users with imprecise or limited dexterity.

It can be very difficult for people with visual and cognitive disabilities to see and understand text that blinks. Blinking text be distracting, especially for users with cognitive disabilities. It can also be difficult for some individuals to comprehend. For these reasons, the blink element should never be used.

Rule Description

This rule requires that no blink elements are present. Flashing text can be difficult to read and blinking objects can be difficult to activate. The associated automated check finds the presence of all blink elements so that they can be removed.

The Algorithm (in simple terms)

Checks to make sure that the blink element is never used.


Other Resources

You may also want to check out these other resources.

Refer to the complete list of axe 4.7 rules.

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