Headings must not be empty

Rule ID: empty-heading
Ruleset: axe-core 3.2
User Impact: Minor
WCAG: Best practice

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Compliance Data & Impact

User Impact

Disabilities Affected

  • Blindness
  • Deafblindness
  • Mobility/Dexterity

Requirement(s)

  • Best Practice

WCAG Success Criteria

  • Not specified or not applicable

Section 508 Guidelines

  • Not specified or not applicable

How to Fix the Problem

It is a best practice to ensure all heading elements (those marked with <h1> through <h6>) contain content. Furthermore, be sure that this content can be accessed by a screen reader; this means that the heading text must NOT be hidden (for example, using CSS display: none or aria-hidden="true").

To ensure you are writing effective headings, read through the headings on the page and ask yourself if you get a general sense of the page’s contents based only on the information provided by the headings. If the answer is “no”, consider rewriting your headings.

While you are at it, be sure that you are using the heading markup (<h1> through <h6> elements) if and only if you are writing a heading. Headings should be brief, clear, unique, and marked with levels in hierarchical order to convey the structure of the webpage.

Bad Example: Empty Heading

<h1></h1>

Bad Example: Heading Hidden from Assistive Technologies

<h1 aria-hidden="true">Heading Text</h1>

Why this is Important

Screen readers alert users to the presence of a heading tag. If the heading is empty or the text cannot be accessed, this could either confuse users or even prevent them from accessing information on the page's structure.

If the text inside a heading cannot be accessed by a screen reader, users of this technology will not be able to hear the contents of the heading. Since headings relay the structure of a webpage, it's crucial that users of screen readers are able to access the contents.

Applying heading markup (<h1> through ><h6>) is a quick way to make text stand out, however, using it for anything other than headings will make navigating a web page more confusing for users of assistive technology.

In addition to making the page more accessible, headings have other benefits, since search engines use headings when filtering, ordering, and displaying results. Improving the accessibility of your site can also have the effect of making your page more findable.

In the same way that sighted users can glance at a page and get a sense of its contents, users of screen readers can do the same by navigating through headings. Well written and properly ordered headings can save users, especially those who use screen readers, a lot of time and frustration.

Rule Description

When at least one heading element (marked by <h1> through <h6>) is present, it is a best practice to ensure it contains content.

The Algorithm (in simple terms)

Ensures that headings contain content and that this content is accessible by a screen reader.

Resources

Other Resources

You may also want to check out these other resources.

Refer to the complete list of axe 3.2 rules.